In these treated patients, HCV-related cirrhosis leading to hepatocellular failure and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality, when expressed as a percentage of all deaths.
It is not clear, however, whether there has been an absolute or only a proportional increase in morbidity following the introduction of HAART as rates of progression of liver disease in patients with well-controlled HIV infection receiving HAART are not substantively higher than in patients without HIV infection (Brau, 2006).
We suggest that the quality of song structure is either a cause or consequence of the number of new neurons added to HVC.
Birds with naturally high rates of neuron addition may have had the greatest success in recovering song.
Previous studies have demonstrated that neuron addition to HVC is highest when song is most variable: in juveniles during song learning, in seasonally singing adults during peaks in plasticity that precede the production of new song components, or during seasonal re-establishment of a previously learned song.
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Nonetheless, in the developed world, liver disease ranks behind only AIDS as the most common cause of death in HIV-infected patients (DAD Study, 2006).
Although HCV infection occurs commonly in HIV-infected patients overall, most patients infected with both HIV and HCV were infected with both viruses via injection drug use (IDU).