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Generally speaking, rock paintings in unprotected environments (like boulder faces) are thought to be less than 500 years old because they are exposed to wind and rain.
But carved designs in hard rock like granite are durable and can last for thousands of years in a stable environment.
Hudson and Blackburn define rock art as "an aesthetic, symbolic representation of significant concepts and entities that is painted on or carved into a rock surface." Rock art may have been created by shamans during vision quests, most commonly in the form of pictographs (paintings on rock), but sometimes petroglyphs (engravings on rock) as well.
No one is absolutely certain about the meaning of the Chumash Rock art, but scholars generally agree that it is connected with religion and astronomy.
This question is addressed starting with a reconsideration of rock varnish chronometrics as applied to Great Basin, eastern California, petroglyphs.
This demonstrates, conservatively, that the petroglyph tradition began before 11,100 YBP, probably before 12,600 YBP, and potentially in the 14,000 years range.
The Chumash lived in the present-day counties of Santa Barbara, Ventura, and San Luis Obispo in southern California during the late period of history (ca. They were a maritime, hunter-gatherer society whose livelihood was based on the sea.The result is evidence for the development of regional cultural diversity in the Americas by Paleoindian times.Few New World archaeological problems have received more attention than (and experienced as much debate as) the initial peopling of the Americas.The photographs in this collection depict rock art sites throughout central and southern California.The aboriginal peoples who created this artwork have a very long history in the region.